Wednesday, March 30, 2005


The "virtual sweatshop worker"-- the real occupation, or the roleplaying persona, or both-- finally arrives in Second Life.

"I'm a Chinese girl," the new resident tells me, by way of introduction. "My work is playing this game for my boss in real life, and my boss asked me for 500 Lindens a day, or I'll be fired, and I'm poor in Second Life and real life, so don't have any chosen.

"So," she concludes, "I'm in trouble now, sir."

"Why does your boss want 500 Lindens a day?"

"Because," she explains, "500 Lindens equals US$2, and US$1 equals 8 Yuan. So I have to finish this task… Do you know my job now, please sir?"

And of course I do know what her job is. The wonder is that I haven't met her kind sooner. At the moment, she's a voluptuous blonde woman with white angel wings, and a spear in her hand. But she's also the latest incarnation of an even more elusive figure-- and perhaps one that's just as fantastic.

"As some of you are probably aware," Persig Phaeton posted to the Second Life forums a few days ago, "other MMO titles over the years have had to deal with an influx of actual sweatshops in Third World countries. These sweatshops force young, underpaid workers to play [popular MMOs], not for enjoyment, but solely for the purpose of harvesting gold to be traded out... to be eBay'ed." This apparently happens on more traditional online role playing games, where it's possible, for example, to earn gold coins or whatever else the official currency of the realm happens to be, by having one's character perform some simple, mindless task like mining or fishing for hours at a time. With enough low-paid laborers doing these tasks on a battery of workstations, the theory goes, it's possible to auction off a large block of the currency on a site like eBay for a profit.

Since there's no simple, mechanical way of earning in-world money in Second Life, however, Persig believed the phenomenon wouldn't come here.

"Last night, however, I had a disturbing experience."

And Persig went on to tell the story of how he met a new Resident near a telehub, where she pleaded with him in fractured English to help her secure some land-- on pain of real world unemployment, if she failed.

"I could tell she was having trouble and she was in distress," he continued in his post. "Finally, she blurts something like, 'Please to be helping me! If I don't buy land in three days, my boss will fire me!'"

At this point, Phaeton sought help from Anshe Chung, one of the most well known (and controversial) personalities in Second Life. Because as it happens, Anshe is publicly known to be Chinese, in real life-- Chinese-German, to be exact-- and Persig hoped she could help translate.

"I just talked to her short time," Anshe tells me, when I follow up with her, "and tried help her with land buying. Finally got her buy First Land plot." (This is a program for new users who want to begin their Second Life career on a small, low cost square of property.) "She said her boss would want to play here or something." Anshe chatted with her in Romanized Mandarin, "and her pin ying (using Latin letters to spell Chinese) was quite good." So, she speculates, "Central or North China, as opposed to Hong Kong (Cantonese)."

On the Northern continent of Second Life, we search awhile for the land Anshe helped this new Resident buy, flying over fields strewn with For Sale signs, along the shore, and farther in-land, over untrammeled forests and fields. Meanwhile, Anshe forwards via IM my request to interview this new resident.

"'Eh, ni hao. Ne ge Hamlet Linden xiang gen ni tan hua. Wo jue de ta ke yi bang ni yi huir'," Anshe cites for me, quoting the message she just sent to her.

"For your records," explains, winking.

I ask her if she believes the new Resident's story.

Anshe shrugs. "Dunno. It sounded quite real.”

Finally, we arrive at the girl's half-built property.

"Oh! A money tree sponsored by her!" Anshe Chung exclaims, surveying her land. "I use this in my malls to give money to newbies. The tree spawns dollar bills that newbie can pick up and receive L$1 or L$5 payments. You pick up and the tree pays you. Maybe she hoped to use it earn money. Or to attract friends for her boss. I remember she told me her boss wants to invite guests."

In any case, a few hours pass, and Anshe tells me the Resident has agreed to my request for an interview. And that the Resident-- who I'll call Hsiao-Tsing, for this story-- happens to be online now.

And within minutes, I'm standing with Hsiao-Tsing at her new home in the mossy tundra.

"What kind of company do you work for that your boss wants you to make Linden Dollars?" I ask her.

"Computer Internet Game company," Hsiao-Tsing replies. "There are many in [China]. Just like the Lineage 2 or World of Warcraft or Heaven 2 game, they all can make money for him. But we learn this game just five days [ago], so no one know how to play [Second Life], and get more money, so I'm in troubles, in a big stress... The life in China is so hard to live on thank you." She worries that her account will be cancelled, if her moneymaking purpose comes out; and though that's not true, I promise not to reveal her Second Life name, for this story.

"Could you help me please, sir?" Hsiao-Tsing persists.

For awhile there, I consider paying her L$500 from my own account, to allay her fears for today. After some deliberation, I decide to avoid the ethical tangle of that option. Instead-- give an avatar a fish, she eats for a day, teach an avatar to fish, she eats for a lifetime-- I tell her that I'll explain how Residents usually earn their Linden Dollars.

"Thank you sir," she says. "If [you do] that I won't worry... For I must work hard overtime day to night day and night."

"In Second Life," I say, "people do not make money as they do in [traditional MMORPGs.] It's not possible to sell gold pieces, etc. to make real US$. To do that, most people make clothing or weapons or other items. People buy them, and they take the Linden Dollars and convert them to US$. Also, some people buy land, improve it, and then sell it to other Residents at a profit. That's another way. Anshe Chung, who you met, does this."

There's a pause, as Hsiao-Tsing absorbs this information.

"So I must take your advice," she says. Then, "Please help me sir, tell me what shall I do, please?"

"Another way to make money," I continue, "is to be a dancer at the nightclubs. Or another kind of entertainer."

"You mean I have to find some job [in] the first place, sir?"

"Also, you can make money by playing games like Tringo," I add.

"Thank you, but my boss' office seems doesn't have this game."

"No, Tringo is a game inside of Second Life. If you like I can show you."

"Sir, you mean that game can make money please?"

"Yes," I caution, "if you win at it. You have to be a good player." I ask her if there are other online games people in her company are paid to play.

"A xing Qiu Da zhan xing ji," Hsiao-Tsing answers. "Just a moment, I'll search its English name." There's momentary silence from her side. "Star Wars, sir. Do you hear and play?" I tell her that I have. She apologizes for her poor English. "So sometimes will communicate slowly." I tell it's way better than my Cantonese, which is next to nil, beyond what I've learned from Hong Kong movies-- even though my own grandfather immigrated from Canton. She tells me that she lives in a province near Canton, but it's not one I'm immediately familiar with.

"So please help me to find some jobs can make more money to finish my task," Hsiao-Tsing says, "then I'll try to build and trade. Please, sir? I must over work and my health is get bad quickly... and I work in big city, have no house, live in my Company, and the bed is so bad, and so dark and so cold, and my meals are also well, often yucky. And I search for how to play this game, and can't sleep and eating well. Do you understand my hard condition sir?”

I tell her that it does sound hard. Though something about the tone of the plea seems off, somehow.

I'm having trouble with my computer, so I tell her to wait while I log off, and that I'll be back in a few minutes to take her to a Tringo contest. But the technical troubles persist, and I'm not able to return into Second Life for another half hour or so.

And when I return, Hsiao-Tsing is no longer in-world. Leaving me to wonder how much of her story was true, and how much of it might have been clever role playing. Almost exactly two years ago, shortly after taking on New World Notes, I left off with similar questions, wondering whether the story of a homeless hacker with a Second Life mansion were true, or an admirably elaborate fiction. Then again, that was before the third party exchange of Linden Dollars for real money was permitted; that was before the stakes had been raised so much higher.

For Persig Phaeton's part, since meeting Hsiao-Tsing, he's had some time to think about the story she told him, too.

"I hope it's a practical joke," Persig writes me. "If this girl really is buying land for her boss," he says, "I hope it isn't in a sweatshop atmosphere... I hope [her boss]... pays her better than a subsistence living wage. I hope. I hope... I hope."

In recent weeks, it's worth pointing out, noted game journalists and academics have begun to wonder if the stories of sweatshops for online worlds in developing nations were apocryphal, to begin with-- or if they exist, whether they merit the term "sweatshop". Since, after all, sweatshops usually involve industrial machinery, toxic chemicals, dangerous equipment-- not people sitting at computers in an air-conditioned office, endlessly (but not miserably) clicking away. Not necessarily something deserving of an in-world labor uprising, in other words-- as tantalizing as that hypothetical is.

In any case, as Linden Lab CEO Philip Linden posted in the official forum yesterday, "We will make sure to the greatest of our technical abilities that simplistic money-mining (buy account, give stipend to other person, make profit) doesn't work."

No doubt true. Though for my part, I can also imagine an entire office floor of a skyscraper in Shenzen or Shanghai or cities unnamed, housing an endless stream of highly skilled, underpaid college students at their workstations, devoted 24/7 to the business of beating all comers at big pot Tringo.

"By the way," Anshe Chung tells me, when we're flying over the new continent, in search of Hsiao-Tsing's land, "I have ten sims ordered now. Going expand my continent to fourteen sims as soon as Ryan [Linden] can deliver… different themed sims, making use of land deeding feature and the first sims were successful." So her own in-world holdings continue to grow.

"You all know Anshe Chung and you know how the poor situation of my own family in China was one motivator for me to work hard in this space," the real estate tycoon wrote in the Second Life forum. "The 'sweatshops' will come, yes, and I admire the people who will work in those sweatshops."

For confidentiality's sake, some descriptive details of "Hsiao-Tsing" and her property may have been changed for this entry.

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Wow that's pretty out there. I'd never heard of anything like that happening in any online worlds. After all, who'd think that you could apparently get more money farming gold then farming fields, but maybe it's cheaper in China to get a set of computers and a few subscriptions, then a bunch of heavy machineries or a field of whatever.

I'm skeptical on whether or not the story is true, but since there's really no way I could disprove it without extensive Socratic Method questions to the said person, I guess I have to believe it. Not to mention that she speaks Mandarin so if this is roleplay it's WELL researched or somewhat based on truth.

But you know, playing Second Life all day isnt that much of a Sweatshop job atleast, not like working till your fingers bleed, hell I know a few people who do that job voluntarily here.

Posted by: Artemis Fate at Mar 30, 2005 9:33:58 AM

Your articles are consistently good. Keep up the great work. :)

Posted by: Steve Cooley at Mar 30, 2005 1:30:40 PM

Good stuff James. These sweatshops - and I do not doubt that they exist, because where else does all the money on ebay come from? - strike me as no more unlikely an economic artifact than the collective insanity of the dot-com era.

In 1999, you could find office buildings full of smart young people building pointless software nobody would ever want to use, clicking away, schmoozing customers at other companies who also had no connection to reality, building beautiful structures and websites and reams of content, all the in service of others whose goal was to convert all this fiction, via VCs and IPOs, into real dollars. We live in a strange world.

Posted by: Jacob Davies at Mar 30, 2005 5:00:53 PM

I read about that on the forums. Untill then I had no idea what Chinese Farming actually meant. I always thought it was a compliment to hardcore gamers, not a new form of villainy.

I can imagine people getting horrible carpal tunnel syndrome and stuff from gaming non stop.

As for tringo, it's probably the easiest way to make money. Perhaps later, I'll make a Tringo-bot that always wins, and see what it does to the economy. MWU HU HA HA HA HA HA HA HA!!!

Still, sweatshops aren't exactly the worst thing in the world. It's not like the WWASPS, and they operate in the U.S.!

Posted by: Relee Baysklef at Mar 30, 2005 5:05:16 PM

I experienced this kind of thing in an MMOG called Lineage 2. From what we could tell, the game and account would be bought by a company and they would hire people in shifts to play the characters, so these characters would never be logged out, but would be in world 24 hours a day farming items and gold ('adena') in that game. Google "Adena Inc" or "Rang Rang" and you will probably find a lot of stories on it.

It's hard to know what to think about Adena Farmers coming to Second Life. A lot of their behavior which was so disruptive in Lineage 2 simply won't work here. To make money in Second Life they will have to find a way to interact with the community in a productive way, by making clothes or items, selling land, holding events, etc. This could prove to be a very interesting, innovative and positive experience both for the Adena employees and for the rest of the community. I certainly hope so. It will certainly require more creativity for these workers than farming gold.

Posted by: Etain Peregrine at Mar 31, 2005 8:29:03 AM

Whoa! I think I've met her. She asked me to help show her how to build and script. I wasn't able to do much for her, though. I met her boss, too. The whole situation was kind of surreal.

Posted by: Vilhelm Dougall at Mar 31, 2005 11:29:25 AM

Cory Doctorow wrote a great short story that mentions MMpog sweatshops.


Posted by: Metahari Quirk at Mar 31, 2005 3:45:22 PM

That is exactly one of the things that makes second life great. True or not true, it is entirely probable. In such a unique game you don't have the traditional heroes vs. villians of other games. Instead you get an abundance of good guys & girls, with a few really bad, and all to real, bad guys & girls. Here at least, the bad is not as bad as some of the griefing etc., and provides a villian for our heroes to fight. Real-life villians with real-world consequences. Now that is precisely the kind of unique occurance that makes second life so amazing! Nice work Hamlet and Anshe.

Posted by: tminus at Apr 1, 2005 12:45:57 AM

One assumes a row of sweatshop brothels if they're sex/language skills are any good.

- Joy Luck Club, indeed. -

you bet.

Posted by: Adam Blair at Apr 1, 2005 2:18:10 AM

It IS true. I too came across this in Lineage2 (my clan Knights of Shadow pretty much owned a server) and the game was over run with them from beta onwards,to the extent that sometimes you could not even play the game anymore for battling with these workers.

It was the reason I eventually quit L2,I just could not see the point in competing with someone who was doing it to put food on the table while this was supposed to be something I was doing for leaisure.

Posted by: Sox Rampal at Apr 2, 2005 6:20:54 PM

ugh...that's just...creepy, and disheartening..

Posted by: Rabid Penguin at May 10, 2005 7:15:58 PM

I know this isn't really the place for political commentary, but this is amazing. The Chinese government typically owns more than half of any company in the nation. That means the government takes a real big cut of the profits.
The Chinese government is financing itself, in part, with online games. Incredible.

I heard of this sort of thing several years ago, and it still blows my mind.

Posted by: Tenbux McGettigan at Jun 27, 2005 9:34:25 PM

Hmm.. I dunno if I buy any of this honestly.

I cannot see how there can be any profit margin whatsoever taking into account the electrical costs of a monitor, computer, building, time etc..

Turning any relevant profit would seem only possible by the top 10% of the sucessful business ownerships in SL.. such as Large Scale realestate or crafted item sales. This in-turn is counter balanced due to Tier fees, account fees, and of coarse your time vs the need to eat.

Im looking at the SL homepage.. it states:

Population: 93,425
Inworld: 3,686
Transactions Today (US$): 83,969.56

Divide the transactions by the number of players.
thats less than a US$. No ones making a profit in this or any online game. In SWG Star Wars Galaxies I ran a very sucessful guild of crafters. Our credit sales went into a central fund/pot.. Millions upon Millions of credits we have aquired are useless to sell. There more of a feasable value to build up a characters skills and sell it on ebay.. but even that. Take your time spent vs what you would have to sell the account for on ebay to make it a profit. You would have to sell your acount for THOUSANDS. and.. well.. thats just not gonna happen.

To make (exchanged) $100 US your looking at earning 25,200L (approx at rate). Clothing items average around 150L. Thats about 168 Items which need to be sold to a 93,425 user base.. every day.

Again consider your RL costs.
Rent/Mortgage, Power, Computer, Meals, Net connection, Water bill, Heat. Put that to a daily "cost" of operation value.

Its not happening.. The numbers just to make it so on a spreadsheet taking into account time and expenses. Anshe I can see turning a profit, but thats because they own nearly all of SL virtual land. But what has that company paid and pay in the holdings that HAVENT sold in just tier fees. I even find it hard that they even make a dollar in profit. Dont believe it. It aint happening folks.

Go to college, get a job.

Posted by: Rik at Dec 9, 2005 5:29:01 PM

I agree. Maybe, perhaps in its HEYDAY you could find avenues to earn a few dollars. Look at the whole server in general. 90% of it is abandoned. There are buildings, businesses that are literally breathtaking! The time and effort spent to create these incredible pieces of architecture alone must have taken months! But wheres the people? Moved on, gone. There is little to no activity on the SL servers. Like any game, it has run its coarse and players have moved on to something else or just grew up and have families. The only place your going to find any sizeable group of online players is either at a club or at some blingo-tringo whatever game. I see a server that is on its heavy downswing. Nearly everywhere is vacant and buildings left behind telling a story of a civilization of players long gone.

Pre-world loading is the biggest pain in SL. Every step you take, takes 4 minutes to load the next 20 feet. Game play is slow and you dont get a real-world feel. Heck, if you fly 100', you dont even see anything and have to wait for the building you just ran into to load before you can walk around it. They give you a free account for a reason. A great concept of a game but as far as holding your interest for longer than a week it has none. Especially when the game is mostly deserted. We missed the HEYDAY of SL and Im sure back then, players made profits when it was new.

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